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A Review of Operational Water Consumption and Withdrawal Factors for Electricity Generating Technologies
This white paper, published by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, provides an estimate of operational water withdrawal and water consumption factors for electricity generating technologies in the US.
Both water withdrawal and consumption values are important indicators for water managers determining power plant impacts and vulnerabilities associated with water resources.
The paper points out that a less carbon-intensive electricity sector may result in an increase or decrease in water use based on the choice of technologies and cooling systems.