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Five Forks Groundwater Treatment Facility

Plant type

Reverse Osmosis (RO) membrane system

Raw water supply

Brackish aquifer water from 5 on-site wells

Well depth

240m - 360m

Permitted groundwater withdrawal


RO system

4 trains, each rated to 3,800m³/day

Treatment capacity

Phase I


Phase II


Concentrate to potable water ratio

1:5 to 1.25:5

Site area

16 acres

Phase I cost

$20 million

Feasibility study

1996 - 1998

Planning approval

May 2002

Board of supervisor's approval

June 2002

Access road and site rough grading

June - December 2002

Groundwater withdrawal permit issued

December 2002

Construction began

January 2003

Concentrate discharge permit issued

May 2003


22 April 2005

Start up began

April 2005

Start up / phase I construction completed

August 2005

Phase II anticipated


Project sponsor

James City Service Authority

Design engineers

Buchart Horn / Watek

Membrane and desalination processes

Rostek Associates

RO system, instrumentation, controls and SCADA

Aquious - Water Equipment Technologies (part of ITT Industries)

Concentrate line and piping


Consulting engineers


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