Tuas Seawater Desalination Plant –

Plant type

Seawater Reverse Osmosis (SWRO)

Output capacity


Pre-treatment elements

Mechanical rake coarse screens, cartridge filters, dissolved air flotation (DAF) units, primary gravity sand filters (GSF), secondary pressure sand filters (PSF)

RO treatment train

Two passes - first for DS removal, second to reduce boron levels

Energy recovery

Pelton wheel and pressure exchange type ERS

Product water treatment

Lime for pH correction, chlorine / ammonia for final disinfection, fluoride added

Brine stream disposal

Sea discharge via submerged outfall

Initial tendered water price

Initial $0.78/m³ in 2005, varying according to a formula linked to fuel costs and inflation

First year selling price


Project cost


Project finance

S$165m loan, S$35m equity investment

Contract awarded

19 January 2003

Hyflux buy out Ondeo Group

June 2003

Groundbreaking ceremony

16 January 2004

Plant opened

13th September 2005

Project Merit awarded

March 2006

Global Water Distinction awarded

May 2006

Contract period ends



Singapore Public Utilities Board (PUB)

DBOO contractor

SingSpring, originally a consortium between Hyflux (70%) and Ondeo Group (30%), now 100% Hyflux owned

Design, permitting and support services

Black & Veatch

EPC contractor

Hydrochem (a wholly owned subsidiary of Hyflux)


DBS Bank (lead arranger), KBC Bank, ING Bank & Standard Chartered Bank

SingSpring project and finance advice

Hunton & Williams